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MEDICAL EXCUSES HIV SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE

Prevalence Of Circumcision And Its Association With HIV And Sexually Transmitted Infections In A Male US Navy Population

http://www.dtic.mil/get-tr-doc/pdf?AD=ADA458066

Abstract:
Objectives To determine circumcision prevalence and its association with HIV and STI in a male United States military population. Design Case-control study of HIV-infected U.S. military personnel n 232 from 7 military medical centers and male U.S. Navy controls n 516 from an aircraft carrier. Methods Cases and controls completed HIV risk surveys. Case circumcision status was abstracted from medical charts while control status was reported by survey. Multiple logistic regressions were constructed evaluating the role of circumcision in the acquisition of HIV and STI. Results Cases 84.9 and controls 81 .8 reported similar proportions of circumcision. Prevalence of circumcision among U.S.-born men was higher 85.0 than those born elsewhere 58.1. After adjustment for demographic and behavioral risk factors lack of circumcision was not found to be a risk factor for HIV odds ratio OR 0.9 95 confidence interval Cl, 0.51-1.7 or ST OR 1.08 95 Cl, 0.52-2.26. Conclusions Although known HIV risk factors were found to be associated with HIV in this military population, there was no significant association with male circumcision. Randomized clinical trials currently underway should shed more light on this pressing topic.

Circumcision Does Not Affect HIV In U.S. Men: Study


http://www.reuters.com/article/us-aids-circumcision-idUSN0345545120071204

WASHINGTON (Reuters) – Circumcision may reduce a man’s risk of infection with the AIDS virus by up to 60 percent if he is an African (Not true), but it does not appear to help American men of color, U.S. researchers reported on Monday.

Black and Latino men were just as likely to become infected with the AIDS virus whether they were circumcised or not, Greg Millett of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention found.

History Of HIV/STI And Sexual Risk In A Clinic-Based Sample Of Men In Puerto Rico

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1743-6109.2012.02871.x/abstract


Results.  Almost a third (32.4%) of the men were circumcised (CM). Compared with uncircumcised (UC) men, CM have accumulated larger numbers of STI in their lifetime (CM = 73.4% vs. UC = 65.7%; P = 0.048), have higher rates of previous diagnosis of warts (CM = 18.8% vs. UC = 12.2%; P = 0.024), and were more likely to have HIV infection (CM = 43.0% vs. UC = 33.9%; P = 0.023). Results indicate that being CM predicted the likelihood of HIV infection (P value = 0.027).


This Puerto Rico study shows an increased risk of STI/HIV in circumcised males.

This 2014 Study Showed No Difference In HPV Or HIV Rates Between Cut Or Intact Men

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/24149088/

Risk of HIV acquisition was nonsignificantly increased among men with any HPV [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.72; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.94-3.15] and high-risk HPV (aHR 1.92; 95% CI 0.96-3.87) compared to HPV-uninfected men, and estimates did not differ by circumcision status.

Circumcision In HIV-Infected Men And Its Effect On HIV Transmission To Female Partners In Rakai, Uganda: A Randomized Controlled Trial

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19616720

INTERPRETATION:
Circumcision of HIV-infected men did not reduce HIV transmission to female partners over 24 months; longer-term effects could not be assessed. Condom use after male circumcision is essential for HIV prevention. (or keep the most sensitive part of your penis and wear a condom)


BTW this study was a criminal as could be. This is something Josef Mengele would do. Fucking SICK! The authors of this study should be in prison. The women were not told their husbands had HIV! Sick!!!!! The mutilators are DISGUSTING sick people.

Study In The Journal Of Sexual Medicine In The Caribbean Circumcised Men More Likely To Have STI, HPV and HIV

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22897699

A new study (published 11/9/2012 in the Journal of Sexual Medicine) in the Caribbean has shown that circumcised men actually were more likely to have had a Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI), genital warts (HPV), and be infected with HIV. 


Women With Circumcised Partners Infected With HIV Are MORE Likely To Be Infected With HIV

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19616720

The researchers of this study stopped it and did not advertise these results. They did, however heavily advertise the female to male study debunked by Boyle/Hill above. “The trial was stopped early because of futility. 92 couples in the intervention group and 67 couples in the control group [intact partner] were included in the modified ITT analysis. 17 (18%) women in the intervention group [circumcised partner] and eight (12%) women in the control group acquired HIV during follow-up (p=0.36). Cumulative probabilities of female HIV infection at 24 months were 21.7% (95% CI 12.7-33.4) in the intervention group and 13.4% (6.7-25. in the control group (adjusted hazard ratio 1.49, 95% CI 0.62-3.57; p=0.368).”


EDITORIAL REVIEW: Male Circumcision, A Role In HIV Prevention?


http://www.cirp.org/library/disease/HIV/vincenzi/
Conclusion
The potential public-health benefits of male circumcision have been greatly discussed in the past 50 years, often in a passionate and emotional manner. However, relatively few studies have been carried out and those that have, present conflicting results. The major criticism of most of the studies preformed to date is the lack of attention given to potential confounding factors, which could be related to both circumcision status and risk of sexually transmitted infections, such as sexual behaviour or differences in hygienic practices, or differential use of specific health facilities. As Poland [48] noted, “We must remember that circumcision is not performed randomly.”


Therefore, further efforts are still required to quantify the relative risk associated with the lack of male circumcision. Some of this can be achieved by using observational designs which better address the limitations discussed above. Laboratory and primate research might also continue to provide useful information.


As the safety, expected benefits, feasibility and acceptability of mass circumcision are all questionable, neither public-health interventions nor intervention studies appear to be defensible options before there is stronger evidence from observational studies in different settings that show lack of male circumcision may be a genuinely independent risk factor for the transmission of HIV.


Male Circumcision And HIV Prevention: Some Science Would Not Have Gone Amiss


Robert S Van Howe, doctor, department of pediatrics
Christopher J Cold, doctor, department of pathology
Michelle R Storms, family practitioner
BMJ. 2000 Dec 9; 321(7274): 1467.
PMCID: PMC1119176
PMID: 11187941

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1119176/

“While a number of studies suggest an association between the foreskin and HIV infection, a simple tallying of studies, such as performed by Szabo and Short,1 is unscientific and misleading. Meta-analysis suggests that men engaging in high risk behaviors may be placed at further risk by having a foreskin, but in the general population circumcision status is not a significant factor. It also showed an important degree of heterogeneity between studies, calling into question the validity of the summary results.2 The multiple confounding factors influencing sexual behavior and HIV susceptibility make it irresponsible to place blame on normal anatomy.”

“HIV transmission is heavily dependent on certain sexual behaviors, not anatomy. The authors have not provided any new information to alter this fact but have taken the discussion off on a needless tangent. Indiscriminate mass circumcision, which is currently popularized by some Western researchers, is unproved and does not address the core behavioral issues that have fueled this pandemic. Therefore, it will not alter the course of AIDS in Africa.”

 

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